Philosophical Department in the History of Native Education and Science

Philosophical Faculty in the History of Native Education and Science

The first half of the 19th century showed itself with the series of milestone events: the Decembrist movement in Russia, echoes of the Haidamaks movement in Ukraine  and  waves of revolutionary bursts in Western Europe. It’s clear that the social cataclysms could not but be depicted in the spiritual life of the society.

It was under such conditions that the Imperial University of St. Volodymyr was established in Kyiv.  The Philosophy Faculty was the first established one in the newly founded university. The foundation of philosophy faculties at classical universities in Russia of that time was not random. The Faculty of Philosophy was the first in St. Petersburg and Moscow Universities. The main reason is that at that moment it was possible to transfer from spiritual and theological to secular education only by means of philosophy faculties. The need for it was urgent. The society felt the need for teachers, doctors, engineers, agronomists, etc. It was secular education that could meet the demand.

Spiritual and theological types of education are interrelated due to the fact that both philosophy and religion are in search of truth, but the ways of this search are quite different.

Religion is derived from Divine Revelation, but philosophy in its conclusions refers to the results of research into natural and human sciences. This circumstance determined the structure of the first philosophy faculties in Russia of that time, in which  Natural Sciences and Humanities constituted the considerable part of the curricula.

Thus, the draft of Temporary Regulations of University of St. Volodymyr dated 25.12.1833 stated that the Philosophy Faculty consisted of The First and The Second Divisions.

The First Division included the departments of Philosophy, Greek Philology, Russian Philology, General and Russian History and Statistics.

The Second Division comprised  the departments of Mathematics, Geography, Chemistry, Botany, Biology and Physics.

The history of the Philosophy Faculty has always been marked by the spirit of free thinking and love of freedom.

The scientists of the Philosophy Faculty have worked out the only correct algorithm of perception and assimilation of ideas, schools and conceptions of the world philosophy. Over the period of the Faculty existence any philosophical system or school, almost without exception,  has been interpreted from the point of view of its place in the universal spiritual process.

Here any philosophical school or conception has been estimated from the position of its capacity and prospects of socio-cultural context. To make this mode of thought evident we should mention such lecturers and graduates of the Faculty as S. Gogotskyi, O. Gilyarov, O. Novytskyi, G.Chelpanov, M. Shlepakov, M. Ovander, P. Kopnin, V. Shynkaruk, M.Tarasenko and many others.

Over the period  of the Philosophy Faculty existence its scientists have tried to work out their own style of philosophical research. The schools and trends which appeared and still exist at the Faculty can be the evidence of it.

The works by Professor Sylvester Gogotskyi were ingenious research. The main ideological and theoretic origins of his philosophy were Orthodoxy and teaching of Hegel. Philosophy of Hegel was determined by him as the most absolute philosophical system, which captured, held and conveyed the spirit of the epoch in its thought. At the same time S. Gogotskyi couldn’t adjust the teaching of Hegel to the priority of Orthodoxy. He suggested his coordination of philosophy, arts and religion, where the first and the last positions were occupied by religion, and therefore arts and philosophy took the middle positions. He explained such a scheme of arrangement of philosophy, arts and religion by the fact that the internal development of a human being starts and terminates with religion.

Oleksiy Gilyarov,the adherent of Plato, was a peculiar personality. One of his mainstream works  “Platonism as the Foundation of Modern Worldview in Relation to the Issue of the Problem and Predestination of Philosophy” is devoted to Plato’s creativity. O. Gilyarov had his own interpretation of the philosophical heritage of Plato in contrast to the attempts of that time to think of Plato as an anticipating ancestor of Christianity. The philosophical research of O. Gilyarov was realized in the field of history of philosophy. He distinguished history of philosophy as the field of philosophical knowledge based on logics of historical and philosophical process (but not on the above mentioned philosophical systems and schools) and on the comprehension of real subject of philosophical creativity. It was the approach which caused the appearance of the so-called “Gilyarov School of Philosophical Texts Interpretation”. D. Chyzhevskyi, V. Asmus and others were the distinguished representatives of that school.

Orest Novytskyi, an outstanding  personality among the professors of the University, was engaged in the search of unity of philosophy and religion. He regarded this unity not as subjection of religion to philosophy, or vice versa, but as interaction, which supports the unity of universal spiritual life. The separation of religion and philosophy, their difference was in the fact that religion unites us with the Absolute, and philosophy only speculates about it. It exactly explains impossibility of substitution of faith for knowledge.

To prove this theory O. Novytskyi   refers to  certain historical facts: the unity of philosophy and religion, which took place in the Middle Ages, changes Modern Age, where we can see their separation, but their synthesis is ahead.

Studying the main Christian denominations (Catholicism, Protestantism and Orthodoxy) in their connection with philosophy, O. Novytskyi mentions that Catholicism stimulated uprising of Scholasticism, Protestantism favoured New Philosophy and Orthodoxy will cause uprising of philosophy including synthesis of faith and mind.

Georgiy Chelpanov belongs to the well - renowned professors of the University. He gave lectures in Philosophy, Psychology and Logics. His textbook on logics was translated both in the 19th and 20th centuries.

In epistemology G. Chelpanov was the adherent of I. Kant’s apriorism concept. He interpreted the cognitive process as the functioning of aprioristic forms generated as the result of human spirit activity.

At the same time G. Chelpanov tried to find his own approach to apriorism. He treated apriorism as epistemological and psychological. Epistemological apriorism is the logic background of cognition, and psychological apriorism is the function of consciousness.

G. Chelpanov’s philosophical conception is revealed in the following works: “The Problem of Cognition of Space in Connection with Doctrines on Apriorism and Subsistence”, “The Introduction to Philosophy” and “Psychology”.

In the 40-50s of the 20th century professor Mykola Shlepakov taught at the Faculty. He was a talented interpreter of foreign philosophy. In spite of the fact that his course was named “Criticism of Modern Bourgeois Philosophy”, M.S. Shlepakov, actually, in the disguise of criticism revealed the real meaning of philosophical conceptions of A. Bergson, J.P. Sartre, B. Rucsell, E. Cassirer and many other thinkers.

In the 60-80s of the 20th century the following outstanding professors worked at the Faculty:

V.G. Antonenko, I.V.Bychko, V.O. Bosenko, V.A. Buslynskyi, M.P. Goncharenko, G.I. Gorak, L.V. Hubersky, V.S. Dmytrychenko, P.S. Dyshlevyi, M.V. Duchenko, A.S. Kanarskyi, I.M. Karnaukhov, V.I.Kasyan, O.I. Kedrovskyi, P.V. Kopnin, N.T. Kostyuk, V.O. Kudin, Y.V. Kushakov, L.T.Levchuk, O.Y. Lysenko, L.I. Marisova, I.F. Nadolnyi, Y.V. Osichnyuk, D.K. Ostrianin, V.T. Pavlov, T.D. Pikashova, B.I. Poluriz, I.D. Remezovskyi, K.P. Rudenko, M.G. Syrtsov, V.K. Tancher, M.F. Tarasenko, Y.G. Fedorenko, O.I. Fortova, V.P. Khyzhnyak, V.I. Shynkaruk, O.V. Shugailin and T.I. Yashchuk.

Each of the above mentioned professors is an expert of their job; each of them presents their genuine page in philosophy and education.

It has been a characteristic feature of the academic staff of the Faculty over the period of its existence that, as it was mentioned above, there have always appeared the scientists who have been decisive in the scientific life of the Faculty.

P.V. Kopnin in his philosophical research of innovatory positions gives the analysis of the structure of the philosophy subject, the background and essence of worldview, the nature of cognitive process and methodological functions of philosophical categories.

While researching the structure of philosophy subject, Pavlo Vasyliovych Kopnin treats its formation, on the one hand, relative to genesis of human civilization, and on the other hand, to historical and philosophical process.

P.V. Kopnin proves that in modern philosophy the notion of worldview got a new meaning, which is determined by the strict division of the range of human knowledge into philosophical and positive (specifically scientific). Now philosophy is not only the knowledge about the world in general, but is also the knowledge, which finds its evidence and demonstration not in special “science of sciences”, but in “specific sciences”, in particular reflection over positive knowledge. Hence, the subject of worldview is not just “the world in general” but relations “man and the outside world”, which include the principles of development, the understanding of essence and the place of an individual among other phenomena of reality, the determination of the social ideal.

We can find the original interpretation of cognitive process in the works by P.V. Kopnin. From his point of view, cognition appears as the result of solution of contradictions between subject and object. Thus cognitive process is subjective and objective at the same time. Cognition is subjective because it is impossible without subject, subject imposes its form on the object by means of the goal of cognition; at the same time it’s objective as it is directed to master the objective world.

In P.V. Kopnin’s logical and methodological research a considerable part is occupied by the issues connected with the analysis of the theory of the form of knowledge synthesis, and in this sense as a form of thinking. In his works “Logical Foundations of Science”, “Dialectics as Logic” he researches the outstanding characteristics of the theory determined by its genesis, existence and transformation.

In his works V.I. Shynkaruk refers to historical and philosophical interpretations of the philosophical systems of I. Kant, J.G. Fichte, F. Shelling, G. Hegel, the outstanding representatives of German idealism. The research of the scientist, first of all, drew attention of his colleagues, students and postgraduates of that time as the author didn’t follow the estimation of the philosophical system of the classical German idealism determined at that time.

One of the significant  contributions of  V.I. Shynkaruk’ s research into  German idealism was the following  conclusion: despite the varieties and different subject orientation of its representatives’ doctrines, all of them are united by the common problem, it is the problem of an individual, the definition of essential means of thinking, activity, creativity and social organization.

The results of historical and philosophical research efforts of V.I. Shynkaruk, a new approach to understanding of classical philosophical tradition developed by him allowed the scientist to find a new conceptualization of the subject of philosophy, its main functions and targets. It was these ideas that were exactly actualized in the teaching activity of the philosopher. Not only in his scientific works, but also in his lectures for students and educational publications V.I. Shynkaruk introduces the new understanding of conceptualization of the subject of philosophy, its main functions, objectives and significance for the development of science, society and spiritual culture.

From  V.I. Shynkaruk’s vantage point the subject of philosophy is revealed in the research into man, his essence and fundamental means of attitude to the world.

Such an interpretation of the subject of philosophy allowed discovering new functions and objects of philosophy. V.I. Shynkaruk considered methodological and worldview functions to be the basic ones in the development of philosophy. The scientist emphasized that the methodological function of philosophy didn’t consist in the formation of the system of orders concerning forms, means and methods of the conducted research, cognition of man, nature, phenomena and processes of social life. Philosophy as the general methodology of cognition functions as metatheory of scientific knowledge development, in the form of particular “meta-analysis” of general forms of its functioning and development (idea, hypothesis, problem, theory, fact, etc.), as analytics of  cognitive abilities of man, logic analysis of scientific language, research into basic types of  scientific rationality, transformation of scientific pictures of the world, historical consistencies with development of natural and humanitarian sciences, etc.

The approach of V.I. Shynkaruk to the subject, functions and objects of philosophy was innovatory and to a large extent revolutionary, because at that time textbooks on philosophy had, in general, a popularization character or just a commentary on doctrines of various studies of classical philosophy representatives.

The new vision of philosophy, its subject, functions and relation with spiritual culture of the society were reflected in the works by V.I. Shynkaruk, it became the subject of his numerous lectures for the students of Kyiv University, for the trainees of the Institute of advanced training of lecturers, postgraduates and scientists of the Institute of Philosophy and a wide range of young intellectuals.

The scientific and philosophical inheritance of V.I. Shynkaruk, his activities as a scientist , educator, and an organizer of science and education became a significant factor of the reformation of philosophical  education in the 60s of the 20th century and the foundation of the best traditions of the modern native philosophical education and science development.

The scientific research of Leonid Vasyliovych Hubersky develops the theory of continuity of ideology in the social life and reasonably proves that in the process of the society development “ideological vacuum” doesn’t exist and a new ideology always occupies the place of the disappearing one. This idea was stated in the times of “perestroika”, when the ideology related to the famous historical events was perceived in the negative meaning as “a dogmatic and controlling” system, which is in relation to social consciousness and social practice.

At that time it was very difficult to overestimate the topicality of such research as a comprehensive study of ideology was stipulated by the acute need of increment of an integrative function that is not only mobilization-effectual, but also a cultural and educative function of ideology in the life of a society and an individual.

The important part of L.V. Hubersky’s comprehensive research into ideology was the revelation of conditions for the  implementation of its humanistic resource taking into account universal, national and social-class values, as it is the revelation of the humanistic resource of ideology that can be the key to understanding its integrative capacity both on the national and international scale. That is why philosophical and worldview analysis became a methodological strategy of such research, its performance gives the opportunity to form general structural principles of possible integration of multifold connection of ideology with social and personal existence of man to the integral system.

The peculiarity of ideological exploration of reality, from the standpoint of the researcher, consists not only in its systematic, spiritual-practical and results-oriented form of theoretical presentation of the human world, but first of all that it is the presentation of reality through the prism of interests and means of social subject existence. Leonid Vasyliovych considers the subjective component to be the basis of the whole ideology, the origins of which are in the “interest” and practicability of human activities. In other words, it was an individual with their interests and needs that was declared to be the foundation of a new ideological paradigm turning ideology into “reflection” of an individual in general.

The difference between worldview and ideology is, from the viewpoint of the philosopher, in their implementation of social functions. All forms of social consciousness, such as philosophy, science, arts, politics, etc., preserve simultaneously their worldview and ideological content, and their worldview or ideological nature can be revealed by means of consideration of these forms of social consciousness. From the standpoint of Leonid Vasyliovych, philosophy is also a special form of ideology, but the scientist always feels it not as a system of dogmas, but as an inexhaustible treasury of the social life experience  accumulated by people, school of intellectual honesty and humanism.

Over the period of the Philosophy Faculty existence its deans, beginning with the first one - Mykhailo Maksymovych, were extraordinary people, fond of philosophical science and education. They tried to provide all conditions for philosophical research and facilitate all factors of highly - qualified specialists training.  One should mention the great significance of those people, they have been in charge of the Faculty since the time of its restoration in 1944, when philosophical education started its expansion to all higher education institutions, where departments of philosophical sciences were established.

At that time the deans were really extraordinary people as besides profound theoretical knowledge they had to have serious skills of organization and provision of educational process. Professor O.M. Raievskyi (1944-1945), Professor F.Y. Moskalenko (1946-1947), Professor M.S. Shlepakov (1948-1949), Associate Professor M.E. Ovander (1950-1952), Professor I.I. Pidgrushnyi (1953-1954), Associate Professor V.K. Tancher (1954-1955) were the deans of the Faculty since 1944.  After the restoration of the Philosophy Faculty in 1965 the deans were Professor V.I. Shynkaruk (1965-1968), Professor V.K. Tancher (1968-1971), Professor P.S. Dyshlevyi (1971-1977), Professor I.F. Nadolnyi (1977-1987) and Professor M.F. Tarasenko (1987-1995). Each of them contributed to the development of the Philosophy Faculty.

Thus, over the period of Professor V.K. Tancher’s guidance the Division of Psychology was established.

Under the guidance of Professor I.F. Nadolnyi the Philosophy Faculty increased its structure and content. At that time the sociological laboratory was opened and in 1986 the Division of Sociology appeared. The Faculty provided training of specialists for such foreign countries as Czechoslovakia, Poland, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Portugal, Yemen, Afghanistan, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Mongolia, Cuba, Panama, Columbia, Syria, Lebanon, Morocco, Tunisia, Congo, SAR, Madagascar, Burkina Faso, Guinea Bissau, Angola and others. Many of the foreign graduates of the Faculty held principal state and political positions in their countries.

Under the guidance of Professor M.F. Tarasenko the Faculty started training specialists in Political Science in accordance with the new curricula and syllabi, which corresponded to the world standards.

The Philosophy Faculty has always trained highly educated and intelligent people able to think creatively and extraordinarily. It’s no coincidence that many graduates of the faculty hold high state offices, head higher education institutions, faculties and departments, have become famous journalists and represent our country abroad nowadays.

The crowning glory is the election of Leonid Vasyliovych Hubersky, academician of the National Academy of Sciences, academician of the National Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of Ukraine, as the Rector of the University on 16th October, 2008.

The Faculty is proud of the fact that the following academicians and corresponding members of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and the National Academy of  Pedagogical Sciences of Ukraine are among  its alumni: V.I. Shynkaruk, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, academician of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine; L. V. Hubersky, academician of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and academician of the National Academy of  Pedagogical Sciences of Ukraine, Hero of Ukraine; V.G. Kremen, academician of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and academician of the National Academy of  Pedagogical Sciences of Ukraine, the President of the National Academy of  Pedagogical Sciences of Ukraine; O.S. Onyshchenko, academician of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine academician-secretary of the Department of History, Philosophy and Law of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine; M.V.Popovych, academician of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine; V.P. Andrushchenko, corresponding member of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and academician of the National Academy of  Pedagogical Sciences of Ukraine; A.Y. Konversky, academician of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine;  Y.M.Sulyma, associate member of the National Academy of  Pedagogical Sciences of Ukraine; I.Mykhalchenko, associate member of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine; D.K. Ostrianin, associate member of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine; V.S. Pazenok, associate member of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine;  I.A. Ziaziun, academician of the National Academy of  Pedagogical Sciences of Ukraine.

The graduates of the Faculty held and are still holding high state offices in our country: Y.M.Sulyma, Professor, the First Deputy Minister of Education, Science, Youth and Sports of Ukraine, (2010); A.M. Aleksiuk, Professor, Deputy Minister of Education of Ukraine, (1968-1972); I.F. Nadolnyi, Professor, Deputy Minister of Education of Ukraine, (1972-1975); V.P. Andrushchenko, Professor, Minister of Education of Ukraine (1996-1999); V.G. Kremen, Professor, Minister of Education and Science of Ukraine, (1999-2005); V.A. Kyrylenko, Candidate of Philosophical Sciences, Minister of Labour and Social Policy of Ukraine, (2005); I.M. Karnaukhov, Professor, deputy of the Head of Executive Committee of Kyiv regional council of working people deputies; F.M. Rudych, Professor, chairman of the Department of Science and Educational Institutions of  the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Ukraine; V.D. Bondarenko, Professor, Director of the Board of Staff Assessment of the Ministry of Education, Science, Youth and Sports of Ukraine; T.V. Motrenko, Professor, the Head of Chief Administration of State Service of Ukraine (2003-2011); Professor D.K. Ostrianin, Professor V.I. Shynkaruk and Professor M.V. Popovych,  directors of the Institute of Philosophy of the National Academy of Science of Ukraine; Y.K. Bystrytskyi, Professor, Director of the International Renaissance Foundation.

The alumni of the Philosophy Faculty were and are in charge of higher education institutions of Ukraine:  Kyiv National Taras Shevchenko University is headed by Professor L.V. Hubersky, Hero of Ukraine, academician of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, academician of the National Academy of  Pedagogical Sciences of Ukraine, Extraordinary and Authorized Ambassador of Ukraine; National Pedagogical Drahomanov University is headed by Professor V.P. Andrushchenko, corresponding member of the  National Academy of  Pedagogical Sciences of Ukraine, academician of the National Academy of  Pedagogical Sciences of Ukraine; Poltava State Teachers Training Institute named after V.G. Korolenko is headed by Professor  I.A. Ziaziun, academician of the  National Academy of  Pedagogical Sciences of Ukraine; Zhytomyr National Pedagogical University named after I.Y. Franko is headed by V.G. Skotnyi.

Professor S.A. Farenyk was the Extraordinary and Authorized Ambassador of Ukraine in Germany (2003-2005), Associate Professor V.O. Rylach was the Extraordinary and Authorized Ambassador of Ukraine in the Lebanese Republic (2002-2009), the Republic of Tunisia (since 2010).

Nowadays the Philosophy Faculty of Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv is the leading centre of philosophical education and science in Ukraine, which provides highly -  qualified specialists training in the fields of Philosophy, Political Science, Religious Studies, Cultural Studies and State Administration.

The main feature of the education at the Philosophy Faculty is the combination of fundamental general education and specialized training, which allows the graduates to be oriented in the modern conditions of rapid advance of scientific knowledge and development of informative society. While studying at the Philosophy Faculty the students acquire in-depth knowledge in the range of physical and mathematical, biological, historical, philological, pedagogical subjects, art study, as well as specialized knowledge in traditional and modern logic, analytical philosophy, theory of argumentation and rhetoric, epistemology, history of philosophy, social philosophy and philosophy of history, history of Ukrainian philosophy and culture, cultural studies, philosophy and methodology of science, history, psychology and sociology of religion, philosophy of religion, theoretical and applied ethic, aesthetic theory, theory of politics, political management, political analysis and prognosticating, etc.  Special attention is paid to the language training of future specialists.  The students go through enhanced studying of one of modern foreign languages according to their own choice and master basic knowledge of classical languages such as Latin and Ancient Greek as well. The students are given the opportunity of additional learning of the second foreign language free of charge.

To meet modern European requirements the curricula and syllabi of future specialists training were made taking into account the  results of the complex national  labour market research  and in close contact with employers. It makes the graduate of the Philosophy Faculty more competitive on the modern labour market.

Classical university philosophical education allows  the Faculty graduates to work not only as lecturers of Philosophy, Logic, Rhetoric, Political Science, Religious Studies, History and Theory of Culture at higher education institutions of Ukraine, but also realize their potential in almost all spheres of social life: research institutions, state government bodies and local government bodies, mass media, etc. Among the graduates of the Faculty one  can find famous scientists, people’s deputies of Ukraine, executive officials of ministries and administrations, diplomatic representatives of Ukraine abroad, heads of higher education and research institutions, political observers, practitioners on public relations and successful private entrepreneurs. Thus, nowadays the expert in the field of philosophy is the researcher-analyst of currents worldview problems of the modern age, methodology of cognition and practical activities, spiritual revival and development of the Ukrainian state.